A test case is a document that contains conditions that help testers determine whether a software product or an application is working properly. It basically creates a precedence for similar tests. The goal of a test case is to set out data like preconditions, post conditions, test steps and expected results.
Effective Test Cases
An effective test case typically has a list of steps, and oftentimes the expected outcomes of those steps.
When testers come across an issue, they need to mark at which step the product failed. This helps developers pinpoint the exact location of the issue, and makes it easier and quicker to fix.
If preconditions exist, then these are also added to the test case template. Most test cases do not require these so oftentimes these fields will not have any data in them.
Batching Test Cases
Most people will fill in the results directly within the fields of the test case. Others, however, may add it to a separate file. This is often the case if multiple tests cases are run at the same time. This is referred to as a test run.
A test run involves several test cases that oftentimes must be run in a particular sequence. Pre-conditions will often be inserted into the start of the test run as opposed into individual test cases. Test runs are extremely helpful if you want to see how a product performs under a particular set of pre-conditions. After all the test cases are complete, the overall results are analyzed.